Access to some of our briefing notes:

State of the Energy Union.docx

Regulation in Electronic Communications.docx

Defining Sub-National Broadband Markets.docx

State Aid to Broadband Deployment.docx

Restructuring Aid for Banks.docx



A selection of our books, articles and other briefing notes:

Climate Change 

  • Emission Trading and State Aid Law (2011).
  • Aviation and the EU Emission Trading Scheme (2009).

Competition Law

  • Antitrust enforcement: Tensions between leniency programmes and civil damage actions - How immune is a leniency applicant? - Case C-360/09 (2011).
  • Retail Product Bundles and Wholesale Regulation (2011).
  • Defining Sub-National Geographic Markets in the Context of Ex-Ante Regulation of Broadband Markets (2011).
  • The Deutsche Telekom Margin Squeeze Case:  Implications of a Hybrid Approach of up front Regulation and Competition Rules (2010).
  • The Right to be Heard under Articles 81 and 82 EC (2003). 
  • Oligopolistic dominance (1999).
  • The Commission’s Notice on the Non-imposition or Reduction of Fines in Cartel Cases (1996).


  • The European Free Trade Association and the European Economic Area (2012).

Energy Law 

  • The Liberalisation of the EC Electricity Market (1996).
  • Le Rôle de l'Etat dans le développement de l'énergie nucléaire (1966).
  • Some Legal Aspects of Euratom (1965).
  • Les contrats de-recherche Euratom (1965).

EU Law General 

  • Consumer protection in the European Union (2010).
  • Rechtsetzung und Interessenvertretung in der Europäischen Union (1999).
  • The power of Co-Decision of the European Parliament Introduced by the Maastricht Treaty (1993).

Export Controls 

  • Notable ITAR Changes in 2009 and 2010 (2010).
  • Basics of Conducting U.S. Export Control Compliance Audits (2010).
  • CFI Ruling on National Preconditions for EU Measures to Freeze Funds of Individuals Suspected of Terrorism (2009).
  • New EU Ruling on the Freezing of Funds of Individuals Suspected of Terrorism (2009).
  • EU publishes new Dual-use Export Controls Regulation (2009).
  • German Catch-all Controls and their interface with the EU export control regime (1997).
  • The UN Sanctions System (1995).

Fundamental Freedoms 

  • Seat Theory versus Freedom of Establishment (2001).

International Trade 

  • South Korea’s Free Trade Agreements with the EU and EFTA: How do they compare? (2012).
  • Anti-Dumping Duties on Imports of Bicycles from India: Mumbai Cycle Ltd. (1999).
  • The WTO and EC Law on Safeguard Measures (1999).
  • WTO Disciplines on Subsidies (1998).
  • The Community’s new Anti-dumping Practice towards China and Russia (1998).
  • The Future of the Lomé Convention and its WTO Compatibility (1998).
  • The EC Trade Barriers Regulation (1997).
  • Individual Treatment in EC Anti-dumping Cases concerning State-trading Countries (1997).
  • The EC Anti-Subsidy Regulation (1996).

State Aid 

  • European State Aid Law Commentary (2014).
  • EU State Aid Law - The Application of EU State Aid Law in the Financial Crisis from a Legal and Economic Perspective for Credit Institutions (2013).
  • Distinction between State Aid and General Tax Measures (2010).
  • The EU Airline Industry in Dire Straits – Are subsidies the answer and what are the conditions for receiving them? (2010).
  • The Commission consults stakeholders on the application of EU State aid rules to Services of General Economic Interest (2010).
  • Public Money for Broadband Infrastructure under State Aid Rules in the EU (2009).
  • UK Measures to stabilise the Mortgage Market and their Compatibility with EU State aid Rules (2009).
  • The Commission’s Guidelines on restructuring aid to banks (2009).
  • European Commission consults on State aid and regulatory strategy to promote very high speed Internet (2009).
  • Geographically limited national tax rate variations and State aid - Case C-88/03 (2006).
  • The EU State Aid Regime (2006).
  • The EEA State Aid Regime (2004).
  • Compensation for Discharging Public Service Obligations: Comments on the Altmark Judgment - Case C-280/00 (2003).
  • EU State Aid Handbook (2003).
  • EU and WTO Anti-Subsidy Laws (2001).
  • State Aid or Not State Aid? – That is the Question (2001).
  • State Aid for Environmental Protection (2001).

Tax Law 

  • Are the present duty free arrangements legal? (1998).


Telecommunication ITC and Media 

  • Ex-Ante and Ex post Regulation in Electronic Communications (2012).
  • Defining Sub-National Geographic Markets in the Context of Ex-Ante Regulation of Broadband Markets (2011).
  • The Susceptibility of Mobile Access and Call Origination (MACO) Markets to ‘Ex Ante’ Regulation (2009).
  • Joint SMP in Mobile Access and Call Origination (MACO) Markets (2009).